[artigo] “The impact of social experiences of physical and structural violence on the growth of African enslaved children recovered from Lagos, Portugal (15th–17th centuries)” (Hugo Cardoso, et al)

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Foi recentemente publicado o artigo “The impact of social experiences of physical and structural violence on the growth of African enslaved children recovered from Lagos, Portugal (15th–17th centuries)”, da autoria de Hugo Cardoso (et al.), sócio da APA. O artigo foi publicado no American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA), a publicação periódica oficial da American Association of Physical Anthropologists (AAPA).

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Abstract

Objectives

The purpose of this article is to examine the impacts of physical and structural violence on the well‐being of early modern enslaved Africans by comparing the growth of children in an archaeological sample recovered from Lagos, Portugal with that of modern children known to have lived under socially oppressive and racist political regimes.

Materials and methods

The age of 18 individuals was estimated from the length of developing teeth. Long bone lengths for age in the enslaved African sample were compared with two black juvenile known age samples: the Raymond Dart (South Africa) and Hamann‐Todd (United States) collections. Z‐scores were calculated for all samples using black children in the South Africa Long Bone (SALB) database as the reference. The similarity of growth across the samples was tested and skeletal growth profiles (SGPs) were devised for the three samples.

Results

The children in the Lagos, Raymond Dart, and Hamann‐Todd samples were all small for age compared to the SALB reference. While children in the Dart sample tended to be the smallest for age and in the Hamann‐Todd the largest, with the children in the Lagos sample falling between them, the three samples did not show significant differences in growth status.

Discussion

The growth deficits shown in this study demonstrate the severe impacts of physical and structural violence on the lives of these children. Although uncertainty remains regarding the timing of growth insults relative to arrival, slavery in Portugal as materialized in these individuals was as violent as in other countries.

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